Preview the Possibilities Using Digital Twins
In diverse applications, Multiphase Cloud® simulation platform helps energy companies comply with stricter regulations and face market pressures — while minimizing operating and maintenance (O&M) costs. By replicating different types of complex multiphase flows, we can help your engineering and O&M teams address the specialized requirements for optimal fluid dynamics in pipelines to enhance hydrocarbon production and provide uninterrupted, safe operation of oil and gas gathering systems.
Multiphase Cloud® is a simulation platform that contains the broad, physical modeling capabilities needed to model, visualize, and analyze simultaneous flow of all types of fluids and solids (gas, liquid hydrocarbons, water, sand, proppant, sludge, black powder, elemental sulfur, drilling mud, and control fluids) encountered in oil and gas production operations.
Areas of Applications
Optimum diameter to minimize the costs of pigging and chemical inhibition throughout the life of the pipeline
Improved design of process lines
Analysis of material degradation
Assessment of overall risk picture
Development of mitigation measures
What if analysis
Total volumes of oil, water, and solids or sludge in the pipeline
Onset of flow instability and its mitigation strategies
Internal corrosion monitoring
Root cause analysis (RCA)
Through virtual modeling that makes the pipeline “transparent”, you can identify threats and effectively manage risk in an industry fraught with uncertainties.
Digital Twin of an Offshore Flowline Created Using 4-Phase Gas-Oil-Water-Solids Flow Simulations. Phase distributions shown in the image are the liquid, free water, and solids holdup profiles predicted by Multiphase Cloud; this image is not an artistic impression of the flow in the pipeline.
Indirect Inspection of Pipelines
We go beyond regulations and industry standards in the assessment of internal corrosion in all type of pipelines. Up to 36 flow parameters are predicted in the Indirect Inspection step (Step 2) of the NACE ICDA methodology. These results are compared to all available field data, including corrosion coupons installation and retrieval reports.
SP0206-2016, Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology for Pipelines Carrying Normally Dry Natural Gas (DG-ICDA)
SP0208-2008, Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment Methodology (LP-ICDA) for Liquid Petroleum Pipelines
SP0110-2018-SG, Wet Gas Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment (WG-ICDA) Methodology for Pipelines
SP0116-2016-SG, Multiphase Flow Internal Corrosion Direct Assessment (MP-ICDA) Methodology for Pipelines
With the High-Fidelity Simulation and Exposure Duration Determination capabilities of Multiphase Cloud, engineers can reach an unparalleled level of accuracy in determining the internal corrosion risk using a physics-based approach.
12 combinations of 2-phase, 3-phase, and 4-phase flows of produced fluids and solids or sludge can be simulated. Up to 36 flow parameters are predicted at each location along the pipeline. 5 gas-liquid flow patterns and 5 oil-water flow patterns in the liquid phase are determined. Two aqueous phases can be modeled: free water and emulsified water to simulate an emulsion breaking process in crude oil not related to its velocity.
Pipeline Profile and Discretization
Elastic deformations of the pipeline in the longitudinal direction are taken into account. Models of elbows, with the flow direction change in the vertical plane, can be constructed considering the design code used for their fabrication. A high-resolution discretization of entire pipeline is used in combination with adaptive grid refinement employed to simulate flow direction changes.
Solids and Sludge Transport Models
Proprietary models describe the transport of solids and sludge along the pipeline. These were developed and validated using field data for a wide range of flow conditions and applications.
Fluid and Solids Properties
A black-oil PVT model or an equation-of-state model is used to predict properties of the produced fluids. Solids properties are the properties of solid particles measured in a laboratory. Sludge properties are its rheological properties determined in a laboratory.
A Digital Twin of a pipeline - whether planned or already built - will show how produced fluids and solids flow along that pipeline during its lifetime.